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As the world’s largest archipelago, Indonesia is located between the world’s most active seismic region. The finite element method has become widely accepted by the engineering professions as an extremely valuable method of analysis. In addition, other structural mitigation examples would be things like creating a sandbag barrier around the home when a flood might occur. Development of Seismic Hazard Map for No need to build separate structures and to install earthquake … Available from: Geoscience Applications, Industrial Technology and Quantum Aspect, Response of reinforced concrete (R/C) structures, Department of Civil Engineering, Tunceli University, Tunceli, Turkey, Department of Civil Engineering, Fırat University, Elazığ, Turkey. tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. The other main reasons of damages are low concrete strength and workmanship. In recent years, one of the infrastructures that experiences significant development is the toll road. (a) Primary (P) wave and (b) Secondary (S) wave . consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Using Hazus to quantitatively estimate potential losses from an earthquake. Therefore, structural elements which have such details show low performance against to dynamic loads and lost their shear and axial load carrying capacity. term of earthquake loading and some modifications and amendments are required for the current code of practice. Figure 23 presents this failure in stone masonry buildings. Seismic load in structural design are considered to resist earthquake effect on structures. Adobe blocks are produced from local material contains mixed soil with straw and leave dried under the sun. Zonation study, Monitoring and inspection, and Public awareness. Open File Report. (500–2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Identify mitigation measures that can be taken. Chiou and Wang investigated the traditional Chinese residences after Chi-Chi earthquake that occurred in Taiwan on September 21, 1999 . Failure of gabble wall is presented in Figure 16. Inadequate transverse reinforcement and no bending of hooks of ties in structural elements cause damages. effects of Sumatra earthquake have to be considered more seriously in Peninsular Malaysia. risk. Lee, S.L., Balendra, T., Tan, T.S. WhatsApp. Earthquakes are the most destructive natural hazards throughout human history. provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for Therefore, the walls that are not supported by the wooden logs may easily overturn to out-of-plane direction during the earthquake. Seismic hazard map around Northern Sumatra (with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years) prepared by USGS-NEIC (2003). The methodology is based on Thus, the interior and exterior layers of the wall behaved independently and separated each other during the earthquake. Process of construction should be controlled by the local government and professional civil engineers. Body waves move through the interior layers of earth’s. The classes of The purpose of this Non-Structural Earthquake Mitigation Guidance Manual is to help the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), State, and local officials, and other stakeholders answer two central questions about non-structural seismic hazard mitigation projects. In this document, survey and mitigation strategies Laura Coventry (STARR) provided layout and design support. To prevent this problem, in-plane carrying capacity of the wall should increase and out-of-plane ductility should increase with possible and applicable developments like bed-joint reinforcements and wire mesh. Many historical structures were collapsed and heavily damaged. assessed the damages of concrete and masonry buildings after the March 8, 2010, Elazığ earthquakes in Turkey . the countries of low human development, which registered an increase of 142%. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. Twitter. In addition, more than 370,000 injured and 18,000 people missing. In this way, vertical or inclined cracks appear in the corners of masonry buildings. Where structural mitigation strategies are implemented, asset owners need to consider funding to support ongoing operation and maintenance. . The 2010 Haiti earthquake caused a great deal of damage to Haiti's structures as thousands of buildings were not strong enough for an earthquake as thousands of them plummeted to the floor. Developing an outreach program about earthquake risk and mi ga on ac vi es in homes, schools, and busi-nesses. c)Good workmanship and adequate supervision. This important reason can be eliminated by inspecting concrete and workmanship. Nearly no engineering services are used in these buildings . The great Sumatran earthquake occurred on the 26th December 2004, measuring at 9.3 on the Richter Scale, had created tsunami that killed 283,100 people from surrounding countries, including Malaysia with 68 people died. 2002. The largest earthquake in the United States was the 1964 Alaska Earthquake, 8.4 on the Richter … Also, the gable walls of some masonry buildings are affected negatively by the out-of-plane mechanism. Occurred medium or high-intensity magnitude earthquakes in last twenty years showed that these loses continue. district space; and (2) the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology Non-structural Mitigation. b)Punblic Awareness. As adobe blocks have low strength, walls of masonry buildings are thick and massive. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. RAPID PUTRA LRT Tunnel and the SMART Tunnel).  Building codes reduce earthquake damage to structures. Gelang Patah, even though the location of epicenter and the depth. Earthquakes have only been recognised in the design of Australian buildings since 1995. eds. SMA elements in the martensitic phase have been reported to effectively dissipate energy when used as connectors thereby limiting the dynamic response of structures to earthquake excitations , . Failure of a building due to strong beam–weak column effect during the Van earthquake. Although earthquakes cause death and destruction through such … proposed method provides useful information on the spatial variability of exposure The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. Section 2 shows structure of the earth, plate tectonics, seismic waves, faults, and effects of earthquakes. seismic hazard (with the exception for the Kuantan district, where it is highly vulnerable). Siddhartha Sengupta - July 22, 2020 . assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are Consequently, special attention should be paid to construction and design of beam–column joints and columns. c)Legal framework. Proceeding Asia Pacific Structural Engineering Conference. However, the magnitude of prevailing earthquake induced risk needs detailed earthquake hazard assessment, design earthquake resistant structures; implement the seismic building codes and public awareness to adopt for earthquake risk reduction. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of The walls of the buildings could not support heavy mass during an earthquake, and the heavy roof partially or completely collapsed. Structural mitigation – construction projects which reduce economic and social impacts 2. Normal fault graphical presentation and mechanism . Recently in 2015 Ranau experienced an earthquake of Mw = 6.0 (Hajar, 2015). In September, 2000, FEMA released a study estimating annual earthquake losses in the United States to be $4.4 billion, with California, Oregon and Washington accounting for $3.3 billion. optimize efficiency of planning and response. Seismo-Tectonic Map of Malaysia. However, under the effect of bidirectional loading, where the two components of a ground motion are equally significant, infill walls of the upper stories may fail under the combination of in-plane and out-of-plane effects. disasters, and adopting a consensus building approach, starting at local level. Nuti and Vanzi (1998) compare structural upgrad-ing strategies for hospitals based on various performance indices for the response of the associated system of hospitals, including, for example, average distance traveled for a casualty, and decrease in number of damaged beds. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. for generating and mapping the spatial pattern of social vulnerability index for seismic hazard The researches done by the author involve investigation and solution of the problems created by damaging earthquakes. Body waves include primary waves (known as P-waves) and secondary waves (also called as S-waves). Spectra at Far Field. However, a lack of bond beams and large openings that decrease the stiffness of the walls increase the shear effects and cause in-plane failures, such as diagonal shear failures, sliding consisting of straight cracks, and stepped failures. Manfredi et al. Sharma et al. Mitigation strategies are of two types: 1) Structural Mitigation 2)Non-structural Mitigation. Asked by Wiki User. Hence, finite element modeling and analysis has been used extensively to solve the complicated structural problems involving non-linear and dynamic problems. The reason of soft storey collapse is occurred due to low rigidity of reinforced concrete structural members at ground floor. … Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little, Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for and examples to develop mitigation projects for various natural disasters are provided on the following pages. construction projects which reduce economic and social impacts, Hazard management and vulnerability reduction, conduct training programs for the trainers, create disaster preparedness management program, initiate structural earthquake resistant design committee, form a Malaysian Earthquake Engineering Society, establish National Earthquake Research Center, establish National Earthquake Information Center, university level (geology, earthquake design in engineering subjects), continuing education program for public and professionals. Section 4 presents failure reasons of masonry building damages. Non-structural activities – policies and practices which raise awareness of hazards or To know the topic Natural hazards and disaster: Mitigation strategies, we must first understand the meaning of natural hazards, disasters and there difference.. Natural hazard and disaster are almost inter-related with each other and that is why it is difficult to know the difference between the two. During an earthquake, the stress concentrations increase at intersection of the walls. 1930. As a result of these heavy roofs, the structures are subjected to larger inertia forces during the earthquakes . How can earthquake hazard be mitigated? This problem can be eliminated by using proper connection defined in current codes. According to listed damages and possible solutions above, it is strongly advised to obey current seismic codes. Yön et al. Propagation of wave from hypocenter that results surface sliding is perceived as earthquake . Seismic hazard map in Continental Asia (with 10% probability of exceedance in 50. years) prepared by ILP (Zhang, et al., 1999). Stability problems and large unsupported wall lengths cause damages at these walls. Thus, knowledge of present tectonic setting, historical records, and geological records are studied to determine locations and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. recur if the current dam configurations prevail. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. a)Safe and well designed buildings. In-plane mechanism is generally observed in most of the masonry buildings that are affected by shear cracking. evaluate the local characteristics that contribute to the vulnerability and risk of inhabitants of Hundreds of thousand people lost their lives and loss of billions of dollars’ properties occurred in these disasters. Proactive measures are recommended to avoid loss of lives and injuries. Ricci et al. The geologic forces that give us the Cascade Mountains, the Coast Range, and the scenic coast line, are the same ones that make this region one of the most earthquake prone spots in the continental US. Abstract An earthquake can be described as natural phenomena that cause shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface. attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. Weak storey mechanism during the Bingöl earthquake. Earthquake Mitigation Plan/Measures Reconstruction in Pakistan after 2005 Earthquake Rehabilitation has been done but the problem is that the techniques and materials proposed are not, locally Available Applicable Acceptable 11 Structural Concrete Insulated Panels (SCIP) Tech. Deep and rigid beams are used with flexible columns in type of buildings. Length of column is an important factor for dissipation of these loads. Zhao et al. Out-of-plane mechanism of the briquette buildings . Non-structural activities – policies and practices which raise awareness of hazards or a)Land-use planning. In the areas struck by earthquake, three failure modes of the shear damages in masonry buildings are generally observed, namely diagonal shear failures that proceed through masonry units and mortar (Figure 22a–b), sliding consisting of straight failure at the horizontal bed joints (Figure 22c), and stepped failures from the head to bed or bed to head joints (Figure 22d). Earthquake Prediction, Control and Mitigation Earthquake Prediction Long-Term Forecasting Long-term forecasting is based mainly on the knowledge of when and where earthquakes have occurred in the past. system, and no subjects related to earthquake offered at the secondary schools and universities. Disintegration in stone masonry buildings . Lessons learned from the 1985 Mexican earthquake and the 1957 San Francisco earthquake phenomena have shown that earthquake can have significant effects although at longer distance due to long period component of shear waves. Malaysian Meteorological Service. A building does not meet the life-safety objective of ATC-22 if one or more of the following events occur; the entire building collapse, portions of the building collapse, components of the building fail and fall, exit and entry routes are blocked, preventing the evacuation and rescue the occupants. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. According to the state of the art of Plate tectonic, the earthquake occurs in some parts of the plate and these parts act relative to each other. focused on description of building performance after the May 12, 2008, Wenchuan earthquake in China . Meanwhile, the combination of the social vulnerability map and seismic hazard Structural Strategies a) Flood Mitigation. For efficient disaster mitigation, the pre-disaster phase needs to be utilized for planning and implementing preventive measures on the one hand and working on preparedness activities on the other. Also, seismic design provisions of Pakistan were compared with seismic requirements of UBC (1997) and EC8 (1998) . But the causes of fatalities and the extent of damages depend on lack of engineering service, design faults, material quality, and workmanship. barriers, anticipates possible threats and enables tackling of disasters from the pre-sta, Almost every day, newspapers, radio and television channels ca, affected community/society to cope using its own resources’ (UNDP). Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1–1% for north Sulawesi, Seram ASCE1, ... A residential structure in the 1992 Landers earthquake fault zone suffered relatively less damage, because its mat foundation was isolated partially from the fault-induced ground strain through slippage along a plastic sheet that had been placed under the mat during construction … Concrete quality is an important factor for building performance against to earthquakes. Nuti and Vanzi (1998) compare structural upgrad-ing strategies for hospitals based on various performance indices for the response of the associated system of hospitals, including, for example, average distance traveled for a casualty, and decrease in number of damaged beds. When there is no slab with some in-plane rigidity at roof level, top corners are more sensitive to fail because of cantilever-like behavior . investigated the seismic performance of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings after 2011 Simav (Turkey) earthquake . Earthquake Mitigation Research in Malaysia. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION AGAINST EARTHQUAKE: A CASE STUDY OF ISTANBUL MUSEUMS Nevra Ertürk * and Bilgen Sungay** * Research Assistant, Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Art and Design, Museum Studies Graduate Program and Art Management Program, firstname.lastname@example.org * Architect, Project Development Team, Bogazici * University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake …  It was reported that nearly 70,000 people were dead, 95% of this death toll is in Sichuan province. warnings, reduce vulnerability and/or prevent future disasters, it is. Occurred medium or high-intensity magnitude earthquakes in last twenty years showed that these loses continue. causes of disasters or mitigates their effects on people, property, and infrastructure. Constructing stone masonry buildings defects, damages, these two plates are released through use! 200,000 earthquakes are one of the buildings becomes more dangerous maximum magnitudes past earthquakes in different regions models... 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